Lung transplantation in COVID 19 patients was studied in 4 counties
which may be a life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage respiratory organ disease; but, it’s sometimes thought of for patients with acute metabolism distress syndrome (ARDS) owing to infectious causes.
we have a tendency to aimed to explain the course of malady and early post-transplantation
outcomes in critically sick patients with COVID-19 UN agency didn’t show respiratory organ recovery despite optimum medical management and
were deemed to be at close at hand risk of dying because of pneumonic complications.
We established a multi-institutional case series that enclosed the primary consecutive transplants
for severe COVID-19-associated respiratory disorder celebrated to America within the USA, Italy, Austria, and India.
De-identified information from taking part centres—including data concerning patient demographics and pre-COVID-19 characteristics, pretransplantation unwellness course,
perioperative challenges, pathology of explanted lungs, and post-transplantation outcomes—were collected by Northwestern University (Chicago, IL, USA) and analysed.
Between may 1 and Sept thirty, 2020, twelve patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS|white lung|respiratory disease|respiratory illness|respiratory disorder} underwent bilateral lung transplantation
at six high-volume transplant centres within the USA (eight recipients at 3 centres), European country (two recipients at one centre), Oesterreich (one recipient), and India (one recipient).
The median age of recipients was forty eight years (IQR 41–51); 3 of the twelve patients were feminine.
Chest imaging before transplantation showed severe respiratory organ injury that didn’t improve despite prolonged mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane natural action.
The respiratory organ transplant procedure was technically difficult, with severe serosa adhesions, fissure pathology, and accrued intraoperative transfusion needs. Pathology of the explanted lungs showed in depth, in progress acute respiratory organ injury with options of respiratory organ pathology.
There was no repeat of SARS-CoV-2 within the allografts. All patients with COVID-19 may be weaned off extracorporeal support and showed short survival the same as that of transplant recipients while not COVID-19.
The findings from our report show that respiratory organ transplantation is that the solely choice for survival in some patients with severe, unresolving COVID-19-associated wet lung,
which the procedure is done with success, with smart early post-transplantation outcomes, in rigorously elect patients.
Patients received treatment according to the local standard of care from a multidisciplinary COVID-19 care team
that included surgeons, disease physicians, pulmonary and important care physicians, and cardiologists at the respective centres .
Referral to the lung transplantation team was made when a minimum of 4 weeks had elapsed since the onset of ARDS and there was no evidence of lung recovery as agreed by the multidisciplinary team.
Not all patients with severe COVID-19 who were treated at the respective centres were mentioned lung transplantation after 4 weeks.
Common reasons that precluded lung transplantation evaluation included multiorgan failure, inability to assess mental status if the patient was unresponsive or not awake,
secondary complications like sepsis or stroke, and general contraindications relevant to lung transplantation.
Each patient was then evaluated by the lung transplantation team and thought of a candidate for transplantation if other programmatic criteria were met,
according to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines.
Although the patients during this series were frail at the time of transplantation, that that they had been healthy before the onset of COVID-19-associated ARDS.
Thus, frailty alone wasn’t considered to be exclusive. Patients with multiorgan dysfunction were excluded from lung transplantation evaluation for COVID-19; multiple organ transplantation in patients with COVID-19 was outside the scope of this study.
All transplantations during this series, except the one in India, were performed by thoracic surgeons whose clinical practices are dedicated to non-cardiac and lung transplant procedures.
Results of this case study
Between First of May and Sept thirty, 2020, twelve patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS|white lung|respiratory disease|respiratory illness|respiratory disorder} underwent lung transplantation
at the six international centres. conjointly, these centres did one hundred forty five respiratory organ transplants for patients while not COVID-19 throughout this era.
though there was no waiting-list mortality among patients with COVID-19, 2 patients while not COVID-19 died awaiting respiratory organ transplantation at the centre in Republic of India.
The median age of the patients with COVID-19 was forty eight years (IQR 41–51), and 3 (25%) of the twelve patients were feminine.
Most patients were blood sorts O (five patients; 42%) or A (four; 33%). Four (33%) patients had no notable comorbidities; the remaining eight (67%) patients conferred with medically controlled diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. The median body-mass index for the cohort was 25·9 kg/m2 (IQR 24·8–26·8).
Mechanical ventilation was continued postoperatively for a median of sixteen days (IQR 4–21). The 30-day survival was 100%, in line with printed outcomes for patients undergoing respiratory organ transplantation for non-COVID-19-related end-stage respiratory organ diseases (USA 30-day survival 97·7%).
One patient in our series was ill well however was still in hospital at surgical day thirty three.
For the remaining eleven patients, the median ICU keep was twenty days (IQR 13·7–24) and also the median hospital keep was thirty seven days (27–42).
Major post-transplantation morbidity enclosed acute renal disorder requiring continuous excretory organ replacement medical care in four patients (33%), hemothorax requiring reoperation in 3 (25%),
and demanding sickness pathology in 3 (25%).15 once a median follow-up of eighty days (range 32–160), eleven patients area unit alive and ill well.
conclusion of supplemental element was doable in 9 patients and also the median post-transplantation Karnofsky Performance standing score was eighty (range 50–90).
sadly, one patient had important sickness neuropathy
and dysexecutive syndrome, and ultimately died thanks to K respiratory disordere carbapenemase-producing K pneumonia infection on post-transplantation day sixty one.
ARDS and respiratory disorder area unit allowable indications for respiratory organ transplantation in step with the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS),
that is shrunken by the Health Resources and Services Administration of the North American nation Department of Health and Human Services to administer the federal Organ procurance and Transplant Network within the USA.
However, though post-transplantation outcomes for chronic respiratory organ diseases area unit established, the good thing about respiratory organ transplantation for patients with wet lung is unclear because of the dearth of reportable expertise.
moreover, patients with severe COVID-19 area unit critically sick and develop right smart ICU-related comorbidities by the time respiratory organ recovery is deemed unlikely and transplantation is taken into account.
The course of severe COVID-19 is additionally typically sophisticated by respiratory organ complications like abnormalcy, congestion, empyema, respiratory organ gangrene, and medical building pneumonias.
Hence, there area unit considerations associated with the technical practicability of respiratory organ transplantation in these patients, doubtless inferior post-transplantation outcomes because of frailty, and repetition of SARS-CoV-2 or medical building pathogens when transplantation.