Researchers have found a healing method of extra cellular vesicles EVs . These help in healing the dead cells and make them contractile in nature even after heart attack .
EVs – a life to dead cell
Extra cellular vesicles are nanometer sized messenger that help to carry the signal to deliver cues and cargo . It acts in response of autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases to cancers and tissue injury . But EVs derived from stem cells beings so beneficial is still a mystery .
Functioning of EVs
Researchers from Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science ( SEAS ) have found the mechanism of not only healing the dead cells but also keep the cells active during depriving of oxygen during heart attack .
Researchers have shown that cells being so active and contractile in nature programmed using heart-on-a-chip.
Researchers also find that these intercellular travellers can be derived from the endothelial cells which lines the blood vesicles .
Actually during heart attack , oxygen level decreases to the myocardial cells because of restricting of blood flow.
Best way to treat heart attack is by restoring the blood flow but it is very difficult within short period of time . This is because of IRI ischemia reperfusion injury ..
Why cells die during heart attacks
Cellular response to IRI involve many phenomenon like calcium and proton balance , deprived oxygen , mitochondrial dysfunction or many more . These EEVs i.e endothelial derived vesicles are so helpful which protect the myocardial muscles .
These Vesicles are actually around 150 nanometer which contains around 2000 different types of protein . These protein actually help from the metabolic stress like mitochondrial function , oxidative stress , calcium and proton balance etc.
Experiment of EEVs on human heart cells
Researchers tried a experiment on heart-on-a-chip with EEVs with dead cells and live cells . They maintained the cells under oxidative stress for about 3hours and deoxygenated after 3 hours . Cells treated with EEVs shown better result with 4 times contractility than non treated cells .
“Our findings indicate that EEVs could protect the cardiac tissues from reoxygenation injury in part by supplementing the injured cells by protein and signalling molecules that support the different metabolic process,” said Andre G Kleber a pathology professor of Harvard medical school .
- Moran Yadid, Johan U. Lind, Herdeline Ann M. Ardoña, Sean P. Sheehy, Lauren E. Dickinson, Feyisayo Eweje, Maartje M.C. Bastings, Benjamin Pope, Blakely B. O’Connor, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Bogdan Budnik, Andre G. Kleber, Kevin Kit Parker. Endothelial extracellular vesicles contain protective proteins and rescue ischemia-reperfusion injury in a human heart-on-chip. Science Translational Medicine, 2020; 12 (565): eaax8005 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aax8005